Born in Aracataca, Colombia in 1927 and died in Mexico City, 2014, was a Colombian novelist, Nobel Prize in Literature in 1982 and one of the greats of universal literature. Gabriel García Márquez was the fundamental figure of the so-called Boom of Latin American literature, an editorial phenomenon that, in the 1960, gave a worldwide projection to the last batches of narrators from the continent.
In all of them was palpable the overcoming of realism and a renewal of the narrative techniques that connected with the European and American novel interwar (Kafka, Joyce, Proust, Faulkner); Gabriel García Márquez added to this his portentous fantasy and his insurmountable endowments of narrator, patents in the work that represents the culmination of magical realism: One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967).
Biography: Gabriel García Márquez
The years of his early childhood in Aracataca would decisively mark his work as a writer; The fabulous richness of the oral traditions transmitted by his grandparents nourished much of his work. Based from a very young age in the capital of Colombia, Gabriel García Márquez studied law and journalism at the National University and began his first journalistic collaborations in the El Spectator newspaper.
At the age of twenty-eight, Gabriel García Márquez published his first novel, The Litter (1955), in which he pointed out some of the most characteristic features of his fictional work. In this first book and some of the novels and tales that followed began to glimpse the village of Macondo and some characters that would set up a hundred years of Solitude, while the author found in some American creators, especially William Faulkner, new expressive formulas.
Committed to the movements of the left, Gabriel García Márquez followed closely the Cuban guerrilla insurrection of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara until his triumph in 1959. A friend of Fidel Castro, he then participated in the Latin Press Foundation, the Cuban news agency. After not a few vicissitudes with various publishers, García Márquez managed to publish an Argentinean publishing house which constitutes his masterpiece and one of the most important novels of the twentieth century universal literature, one Hundred Years of Solitude (1967).
Incubated for almost twenty years and written in eighteen months, one hundred years of solitude recreates through the family saga of the Buendia the historical adventure of Macondo, imaginary village founded by the first Buendia that is the transcript of his native town and, at the same Time, of their country and of the continent. of perfect circular structure, the novel raises a world of its own, a mythical recreation of the real world of Latin America, in a way that has come to be called “magic realism” by the constant encounter of the real with fantastic motifs and elements. Thus, in the story of the founding of the people, their growth, their participation in the civil wars that plagueed the country, its exploitation by an American banana company, the subsequent revolutions and counter and the destruction End of the village (which converges with the extinction of the lineage of its founders, doomed from the beginning to “a hundred Years of Solitude “), Premonitory Dreams, supernatural apparitions, insomnia plagues, biblical floods and all Kind of magical events, all narrated in a rich prose, fluent and captivating that make reading an unfinished astonishment and pleasure.
After a season in Paris, Gabriel García Márquez settled in Barcelona in 1969, where he became friends with Spanish intellectuals, such as Carlos Barral, and South Americans, such as Mario Vargas Llosa. His stay there was decisive for the concretion of what was known as the Boom of Latin American literature, which was the international discovery of the young and not so young narrators of the continent: the Peruvian Mario Vargas Llosa, the Argentines Jorge Luis Borges, Ernesto Sábato and Julio Cortázar, Mexicans Juan Rulfo and Carlos Fuentes and Uruguayans Juan Carlos Onetti and Mario Benedetti, among others. In 1972 he obtained the International Prize of novel Rómulo Gallegos, and a few years later he returned to Latin America to reside alternately in Cartagena de Indias and in Mexico City, mainly due to the political instability of his country.
Prior to a hundred Years of Solitude, Gabriel Garcia Márquez had sketched the world of Macondo in novels such as Litter (1955) and the Colonel has no one to write (1961), and also in collections of stories such as the funeral of the Big Momma (1962). After a hundred years his narrative, stripped in a greater or lesser half of fantastic elements, maintained a very high level; It is the case of novels like the autumn of the Patriarch (1975), which submits to mind-boggling treatment the subject of the dictator Hispanic; Chronicle of a Death Foretold (1981), Story of a crime of honor based on real events that stands out for its constructive perfection and has been considered his second masterpiece; And love in The Times of Cholera (1985), an extraordinary story of a love that, born in adolescence, does not come to consummate until 53 years later, already in the old age of the characters.
His literary prestige, which in 1982 earned him the Nobel Prize in Literature, gave him authority to make his voice heard about Colombian political and social life. His activity as a journalist was collected in coastal Texts (1981) and Between the Cops (1983), compendiums of articles published in the press, and in news of a kidnapping, a large story published in 1996 that deals with the dramatic nine Journalists kidnapped by order of drug trafficker Pablo Escobar. Story of a castaway, report on a real case published in the form of a novel in 1968, constitutes a shining example of “new realism” and showed its ability to change registration.
In the cinema he intervened in the writing of numerous scripts, sometimes adaptations of his own works, and since 1985 shared, with the Argentinean filmmaker Fernando Birri, the direction of the international Film School of Havana. Its subsequent production include a historical novel around Simón Bolívar, the general in his Labyrinth (1989); The collection of Stories Twelve Pilgrim Tales (1992); The volume of Memories Live to Tell (2002), which covers the first thirty years of his life, and his last novel, Memories of My Sad Whores (2004), on the love of a Nonagenario journalist by a young prostitute. He died in Mexico City in 2014, following a relapse in lymphatic cancer that had been diagnosed in 1999.