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Biography of Martin Heidegger
(Messkirch, Germany, 1889-Todtnauhaberg, current Germany, 1976) German philosopher. A disciple of Edmund Husserl, his undeniable pretreatment within Continental philosophy has always been marked by controversy, especially that of his adherence to the National Socialist regime, manifested in the speech he uttered in the inauguration of the Chair at the University of Freiburg (1933).
The resignation of the chair very shortly after occupying it did not prevent that in 1945, the end of the Second World War with the occupation of Germany by the Allies, was removed as a teacher in Freiburg. Only in the year 1952 he rejoined, although his academic activity was already much less constant. Although he received from some of his disciples, like Herbert Marcuse, the insistent suggestion that he publicly recanted his speech of 1933, the philosopher dismissed the council and never wanted to explain.
Although for some it is impossible to address his work without reservation, the majority of current philosophers and scholars prefer to take Heidegger work in its strictly philosophical sense, which is no less controversial. From analytical philosophy, his work has been criticized with hardness, especially by Rudolf Carnap. But the Heideggeriano thought has also aroused enthusiastic adhesions: Thus, the French philosophy of the Decades of 1960 and 1970 (Jacques Derrida, Emmanuel Levinas, Paul Ricoeur) admired the capacity of precision of its language, as well as its contribution to the discourse Humanistic.
Heidegger work is usually understood as separate in two different periods. The first is marked by being and time, a work that, despite being incomplete, raises much of the central ideas of all his thought. In it, the author is part of the budget that the task of philosophy is to determine fully and completely the sense of being, not of the entities, understanding by “being”, in general, that which installs and keeps the concrete entities in existence, although the Definition of this concept occupies the whole work of the author, and is in a sense impossible.
In Heideggerian comprehension, man is the privileged entity to interrogate for the self, for only he “is going” his own being, ie, maintains a specific relationship of recognition with him. The specific form of being that corresponds to man is the “Being-there” (Dasein), as it is in each case bound to the world, which defines “being-there” as “being-in-the-world”. The distinction of modern philosophy, from Descartes, between a subject enclosed in himself who faces a totally alien world is inconsistent for Heidegger: The being of man is defined by his relationship with the world, which is also practical (“to be-the-hand”) before That theoretical (“to be before-the-Eyes”).
These categories serve to understand where the difference between an authentic life, which recognizes the character of “fall” that has existence, that is, the inability to dominate its foundation (the self), and an inauthentic or alienated life, to forget the Be in the name of the specific entities. The temporal dimension of being, as a project of the “Being-there” and confrontation with death (the being-there is also “being-for-death”), would be the other great oblivion of classical philosophy. Heidegger effort to think of being as a relation of the entities in time is at the base of the subsequent hermeneutic movement.
In the second stage of his thinking, the philosopher studies the history of metaphysics from Plato as a process of forgetting the self, and as an inevitable fall in nihilism (when one thinks of the entity only, it ends up appearing empty). In his last works, he makes an approach to art as a privileged place where the self is present. For Heidegger, it is also necessary to rehabilitate the theoretical-humanistic knowledges, in order to show that what constitutes every man as such is not his material capacity to alter the environment, but the possibility that he has of making the habitable world: the Man He must understand that he is not “the Lord of the body but the shepherd of the self” and that “language is the house of being.” Before the technique, the language, and in general the conscience (the capacity to interrogate of the Dasein), are the two elements that constitute the man as existing or, which is the same, as a man.
Considered one of the most complex and important philosophers of the twentieth century, one of the greatest figures of modern philosophy. Very influenced by the Socratic, by Kierkegaard, and by Nietzsche, in his most outstanding work, Being and Time (1927), he is interested in what he considered the essential philosophical question: what is being?. Since then, his scientific and essays production was very extensive.
He argued that the individual is in danger of being immersed in the world of objects, the daily routine, and in the conventional and superficial behavior of the multitude. The feeling of Fear (Angst) leads the individual to a confrontation with death and the last meaninglessness of life, but only by this confrontation can a true sense of being and freedom be acquired. The idea of the senselessness of the human existence made him to be considered as part of the current existentialist, precursor to a great extent of the ideas of philosophers like Jean Paul Sartre. This work was followed by others as an introduction to Metaphysics (1953). He believed that modern technological society has favored an elemental and manipulative attitude that has deprived of meaning to the being and human life, a state that called nihilism.